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《青藏高原生态文明建设状况》白皮书(全文中英对照)V

发布时间: 2018-09-20 09:32:12   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 青藏高原被誉为“世界屋脊”“地球第三极”“亚洲水塔”,是珍稀野生动物的天然栖息地和高原物种基因库,是中国乃至亚洲重要的...



  科技支撑绿色发展


  在青藏高原经济社会和生态文明建设中,科技的支撑作用日益显现。


  青藏铁路的建设和运营是科技创新引领绿色发展的标志性工程。青藏铁路格尔木-拉萨段(格拉段)全长1142公里,工程建设面临冻土消融、高寒缺氧、生态脆弱三大世界性工程难题。格拉段穿越连续多年冻土区546.4公里,基于大量观测数据和科技成果,科技人员设计采用了以桥代路、片石通风路基、通风管路基、碎石和片石护坡、热棒、保温板、综合防排水体系等措施,保障了铁路修建。青藏铁路穿越可可西里、三江源、色林错等多个国家级自然保护区,为保护藏羚羊等野生动物的生存环境,铁路全线建立了33处野生动物专用通道;为保护沿线生态环境,采取了沙害治理、植草绿化、草皮移植等一系列生态保护措施。青藏铁路建成运营后,多年冻土保持稳定,铁路两侧生态得到持续恢复,局部区域已接近甚至优于周边自然状态。青藏铁路建设成就在国际上获得高度评价。政府间气候变化专业委员会(IPCC)第四次和第五次《气候变化评估报告》认为,青藏铁路为其他国家和地区建设适应于气候变化的绿色铁路提供了成功案例。美国《科学》杂志2007年4月27日刊文指出,青藏铁路终将提升中国西部生态、社会、经济的可持续发展,它不仅是一个铁路工程,更是一个生态奇迹。“青藏铁路工程”获得2008年度国家科技进步奖特等奖。

Sci-tech-supported green development 


Sci-tech is playing a more obvious supporting role in socio-economic development and ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


The Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a landmark project, demonstrating the guidance given by sci-tech innovation to green development. The Golmud-Lhasa section extends 1,142 km, and construction workers were confronted with three extreme engineering problems: melting permafrost, hypoxia at high altitude, and a vulnerable ecology. As the section runs through permafrost regions for almost 546.4 km, sci-tech personnel designed and adopted such measures as replacing surface routes with viaducts, rubble ventilated embankments, ventiduct roadbeds, gravel and rubble revetments, heat conducting poles, insulation boards, and integrated waterproof and drainage systems. These were based on a great volume of observation data and previous technological achievements, ensuring the successful completion of this section. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway also runs through some national nature reserves, including Hoh Xil, Sanjiangyuan and Siling Co. To protect the living environment of Tibetan antelopes and other wild animals, 33 special passageways were added along the railway; to protect the ecological environment, a series of measures were taken, including sand hazard control, grass planting, and turf transplanting. Since the railway was brought into operation, the permafrost has been stable, and the ecology along the line is recovering, with some areas approaching or even surpassing the level of their surroundings. The achievements of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway have earned international acclaim. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated in its fourth and fifth assessment reports, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway offers a successful example for other countries and regions in building “green” railways adapted to climate change. Science magazine in the United States published an article on April 27, 2007, pointing out that the railway will “ultimately promote the sustainable ecological, social, and economic development of western China”, describing it as not only an engineering accomplishment, but also “an ecological miracle”. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway Project won the special award of the 2008 National Award for Scientific and Technological Progress.




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