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《中国的医疗卫生事业》白皮书(中英对照)III

发布时间: 2018-04-03 09:09:37   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 《中国的医疗卫生事业》白皮书(中英对照),粘贴出来以供大家参考。




四、慢性非传染性疾病防治


    伴随中国工业化、城镇化、老龄化进程的加快,居民慢性病患病、死亡呈现持续快速增长趋势。中国现有确诊慢性病患者2.6亿人,慢性病导致的死亡占中国总死亡的85%,导致的疾病负担占总疾病负担的70%。


    中国政府把防治慢性病作为增进公众健康、改善民生的重要任务,逐步建立起覆盖全国的慢性病防治服务体系,对主要慢性病进行分级管理,实施综合防控策略,全面提高慢性病综合防治能力,努力降低人群慢性病危险因素水平,减少慢性病发病率、致残率和死亡率。


IV. Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Non-communicable Disorders


Accelerated industrialization, urbanization and ageing of the population have brought about a trend of a continuous and rapid increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and mortality caused by such diseases. At present, about 260 million Chinese have been diagnosed to have contracted chronic diseases that have caused 85% of total deaths in China and incurred 70% of total medical costs.


The Chinese government regards chronic disease prevention and treatment as an important task in improving the people's health and well-being. It has established step by step a nationwide prevention and treatment service for chronic diseases, adopted level-by-level management over certain major chronic diseases, implemented a comprehensive control strategy, enhanced the overall prevention and treatment capacity over chronic diseases, made efforts to reduce factors that cause chronic diseases and bring down the morbidity and mortality of chronic diseases as well as disability caused by them.


    促进慢性病防治结合。2002年以来,慢性病防控策略逐步实现由重治疗向防治结合方向的转变。国家级层面形成了以中国疾控中心、国家癌症中心和国家心血管病中心为主要技术支撑的慢性病防控格局。各地逐步形成了由疾控机构、基层医疗卫生机构、医院和专业防治机构共同构筑的慢性病防控工作网络。提出早诊断、早治疗,降低发病率、病死率和病残率的慢性病防治目标,面向一般人群、高危人群和患病人群,对心脑血管病、恶性肿瘤、糖尿病和慢性阻塞性肺病等主要慢性病,血压升高、血糖升高、胆固醇升高和超重/肥胖等主要生物危险因素,以及烟草使用、不健康饮食、缺少体力活动和过量饮酒等主要行为危险因素,实施有效干预。


    制定慢性病防控措施。出台《中国慢性病防治工作规划(2012—2015年)》等一系列慢性病防控政策性文件和慢性病防治指南。从2005年开始,实施癌症早诊早治等慢性病防治重大专项。2007年,在全国启动全民健康生活方式行动,多途径、多形式、多角度推动健康生活方式行为养成。2009年,将高血压、糖尿病、老年人健康管理纳入医改基本公共卫生服务项目内容。2010年启动国家级慢性病综合防控示范区建设工作,提高慢性病综合防控能力。大力开展儿童口腔疾病综合干预,预防儿童龋齿。


Integration has been promoted between prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Since 2002, China's strategy for prevention and control of chronic diseases has gradually shifted to placing equal emphasis on prevention and treatment from laying stress on treatment alone. At the state level, a chronic disease prevention and control system, which takes as its technical support the China Center for Disease Control, the National Cancer Center of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China, has gradually taken shape. In the localities, networks of chronic disease prevention and control have gradually been formed, comprising the local disease control institutions, grass-roots medical and healthcare institutions, hospitals as well as professional prevention and treatment organizations. The principle of early diagnosis and early treatment was proposed, in a bid to realize the targets of reducing the rate of morbidity, mortality and disability in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Primary attention has been directed at the general public, the high-risk population and people with diseases. For major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, diabetes and chronic obstructive lung diseases, effective medical interventions should be taken to reduce biological risk factors, like high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, high cholesterol in blood and overweight/obesity, and behavioral risk factors, such as smoking, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercises and excessive drinking.


Measures for chronic disease control and prevention have been worked out. China has issued the "National Program for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention (2012-2015)" and other relevant policy documents and guidelines. Starting in 2005, such major special programs as that for early diagnosis and early treatment of cancer have been put into implementation. In 2007, a nationwide movement of healthy lifestyle was launched in the general public, employing various measures and channels to encourage the people to cultivate a healthy lifestyle. In 2009, the government included hypertension, diabetes and elders' health management in the basic public health services amidst medical reform. In 2010, China set out to build state-level demonstration areas in chronic disease prevention and control capacity, aiming at enhancing the comprehensive prevention and control capability against chronic diseases. Comprehensive intervention has been vigorously carried out for early-childhood oral disorders to prevent dental caries among children.



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