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《中国的医疗卫生事业》白皮书(中英对照)II

发布时间: 2018-04-03 09:07:12   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 《中国的医疗卫生事业》白皮书(中英对照),粘贴出来以供大家参考。



    ——基本药物制度从无到有。初步形成了基本药物遴选、生产供应、使用和医疗保险报销的体系。2011年,基本药物制度实现基层全覆盖,所有政府办基层医疗卫生机构全部配备使用基本药物,并实行零差率销售,取消了以药补医机制。制定国家基本药物临床应用指南和处方集,规范基层用药行为,促进合理用药。建立基本药物采购新机制,基本药物实行以省为单位集中采购,基层医疗卫生机构基本药物销售价格比改革前平均下降了30%。基本药物全部纳入基本医疗保障药品报销目录。有序推进基本药物制度向村卫生室和非政府办基层医疗卫生机构延伸。药品生产流通领域改革步伐加快,药品供应保障水平进一步提高。


    ——城乡基层医疗卫生服务体系进一步健全。加大政府投入,完善基层医疗卫生机构经费保障机制,2009—2011年,中央财政投资471.5亿元人民币支持基层医疗机构建设发展。采取多种形式加强基层卫生人才队伍建设,制定优惠政策,为农村和社区培养、培训、引进卫生人才。建立全科医生制度,开展全科医生规范化培养,安排基层医疗卫生机构人员参加全科医生转岗培训,组织实施中西部地区农村订单定向医学生免费培养等。实施万名医师支援农村卫生工程,2009—2011年,1100余家城市三级医院支援了955个县级医院,中西部地区城市二级以上医疗卫生机构每年支援3600多所乡镇卫生院,提高了县级医院和乡镇卫生院医疗技术水平和管理能力。转变基层医疗服务模式,在乡镇卫生院开展巡回医疗服务,在市辖区推行社区全科医生团队、家庭签约医生制度,实行防治结合,保障居民看病就医的基本需求,使常见病、多发病等绝大多数疾病的诊疗在基层可以得到解决。经过努力,基层医疗卫生服务体系不断强化,农村和偏远地区医疗服务设施落后、服务能力薄弱的状况明显改变,基层卫生人才队伍的数量、学历、知识结构出现向好趋势。2011年,全国基层医疗卫生机构达到91.8万个,包括社区卫生服务机构2.6万个、乡镇卫生院3.8万所、村卫生室66.3万个,床位123.4万张。


A basic system of drugs has been developed from scratch. A system for the selection, production, supply and use of basic drugs, and cover of them in medical insurance has been put into place. In 2011, the coverage of this system was extended to all grass-roots medical and health-care institutions run by the government, where these drugs were sold at zero profit, practically eliminating the practice of hospitals subsidizing their medical services with drug sales. A national guideline for the clinical application of basic drugs and a formulary have been drawn up to ensure that basic drugs are used according to due procedures at grass-roots medical institutions. A new mechanism has been established for the procurement of basic drugs, under which the basic drugs are to be purchased by provinces. As a result, the prices of basic drugs at grass-roots medical and healthcare institutions have dropped by 30% on average, as compared with those before the reform. The basic drugs have all been included in the list of reimbursable drugs covered by basic medical insurance. Also, efforts have been made to supply basic drugs in an orderly way to village clinics and non-governmental medical institutions at the grass-roots level. The steps of reform have been quickened in drug production and circulation, and the supply of drugs has been better ensured.


Urban and rural grass-roots level medical and health services have been further improved. The government has invested more to ensure the funding for grass-roots medical and healthcare institutions. From 2009 to 2011, the central government invested 47.15 billion yuan to support the building and development of grass-roots level medical institutions. Diverse forms have been adopted to strengthen the ranks of healthcare workers at the grass-roots level, and preferential policies have been made to train and introduce competent personnel for rural and community healthcare. A system of general practitioners (medical workers with sufficient knowledge in all branches of medicine) has been established, under which general practitioners are trained in the regular way; grass-roots medical and healthcare workers are enrolled in training courses for upgrading them to general practitioners; and medical students are specially trained for the needs of central and western urban areas, for which they do not have to pay their tuition fees. A project, known as "ten thousand doctors extending support to rural medical care," has been launched. From 2009 to 2011, over 1,100 Grade-III urban hospitals extended support to 955 rural county-level hospitals every year, and urban medical institutions above Grade II in central and western China granted aid to over 3,600 township hospitals every year, thus helping improve the overall technological level and management of the county and township hospitals. Meanwhile, the mode of medical services has been changed. Touring medical services have been provided in township hospitals; and in the urban districts ranks of general practitioners have been formed and a system of family doctors has been set up. Prevention has been combined with the treatment, measures have been taken to ensure basic needs of the residents to see doctors and make it possible that the diagnosis and treatment of most commonly seen and frequently occurring diseases are performed at the community level. After years of effort, community-level medical and healthcare system has been strengthened; marked changes have taken place to the situation of backward facilities and poor services in rural and remote areas; community-level medical workers have increased in number, and their educational background and knowledge have improved. In 2011, the number of grass-roots medical and healthcare institutions across the country reached 918,000, including 26,000 urban community service centers, 38,000 township hospitals and 663,000 village clinics, and the number of hospital beds reached 1,234,000. 




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