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《改革开放40年中国人权事业的发展进步》白皮书(中英对照全文)V

发布时间: 2019-02-01 09:17:33   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 改革开放极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,成功地开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,也揭开了中国人权事业发展的新篇章。



 妇女儿童保护和救助工作持续加强。开展反家庭暴力的基层司法实践,探索家庭暴力人身安全保护裁定制度,试点法院从2008年的5个省扩展到2015年的14个省。2015年通过反家庭暴力法,为保障包括妇女在内的家庭成员的合法权益,促进建立平等、和谐、文明的家庭关系发挥了重要作用。《刑法修正案(九)》作出有利于保障妇女儿童权益的重要修改,更加有力地惩处强奸幼女、拐卖妇女儿童的犯罪行为。颁布修订未成年人保护法、预防未成年人犯罪法等法律法规,保护未成年人的身心健康,保障未成年人的合法权益。2009年,公安部建立了世界上第一个打拐DNA信息库,目前已帮助5500余名被拐儿童与家人团聚;2016年,公安部建立“团圆”打拐系统,截至2018年9月,平台发布儿童失踪信息3419条,找回3367人,找回率98.4%。2017年,全国共有儿童收养救助服务机构663个,床位10.3万张,年末收留抚养各类人员5.9万人。截至2017年,共帮助78万名农村留守儿童得到有效监护,为18万名无户籍农村留守儿童登记落户,帮助1.7万名农村留守儿童返校复学。


  Protection and assistance for women and children have been enhanced. China has taken judicial action against domestic violence at the grassroots level. It has experimented with an adjudication system of personal security protection against domestic violence, and courts conducting this pilot program have expanded from 5 provinces in 2008 to14 in 2015. In 2015 China promulgated the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, which has played an important role in ensuring the legitimate rights of family members including women, and maintaining equal and harmonious family relations. Amendment IX to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China represents a major step forward in protecting women and children’s rights and interests; it specifies harsher punishments for the crimes of raping girls under the age of 14 and abducting and trafficking women and children.

  To ensure the physical and psychological health of minors and to protect their legitimate rights and interests, China has promulgated the Law on the Protection of Minors and the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, both amended in 2012. In 2009 the Ministry of Public Security developed the world’s first DNA database for finding abducted children, having helped 5,500 children reunite with their families to date. On the “Tuan Yuan” (Reunion) online platform initiated in 2016, a total of 3,419 items on missing children had been posted by September 2018, which had helped recover 3,367 children. In 2017 China had 663 child adoption and assistance institutions with 103,000 beds, accommodating 59,000 persons. By 2017 some 780,000 rural children left at home by their migrant worker parents had been provided with effective guardianship, 180,000 previously unregistered left-at-home rural children had been registered, and 17,000 had been returned to school.

  老年人权益保障机制逐步健全。2017年,中国60岁及以上老年人达2.4亿,占总人口的17.3%。2012年以来,中国修订老年人权益保障法,出台《关于加快发展养老服务业的若干意见》《“十三五”国家老龄事业发展和养老体系建设规划》等70多项政策文件,初步建立养老法规政策体系。养老服务工作逐步从改革开放前以机构集中照料为主,拓展到以居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充、医养相结合的养老服务体系建设和以家庭养老支持、互助养老为新突破点的融合发展。截至2017年,全国养老服务已经从1978年的8000多家服务机构,扩大到包括养老机构、社区养老服务设施、互助型养老设施等各类养老服务机构15.5万个,床位744.8万张。加强了针对老年人的社会救助和福利保障,将1781.7万困难老年人纳入最低生活保障范围,410.2万特困老年人纳入政府供养范围。截至2017年,全国经济困难的高龄老年人津贴制度实现省级全覆盖,全国所有省份均出台了老年人社会优待政策。不断丰富老年人的社会文化生活,全国共有老年学校4.9万个,在校学习人员704万人,各类老年活动室35万个。


  The mechanism for protecting the rights and interests of the elderly has improved. In 2017 some 240 million Chinese were aged 60 or above, accounting for 17.3 percent of the total population. Since 2012 China has amended the Law on Protecting the Rights and Interests of the Elderly, and released more than 70 policy papers, such as the Decisions on Accelerating the Development of the Old-Age Service Industry and the Program for Developing China’s Old-Age Services and System Building During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, forming a legal and policy framework for old-age care.

  Before reform and opening up China’s elderly were mainly cared for in nursing homes. Now more of them receive home care and community services, but can still choose nursing homes or facilities with medical care services. New models of old-age care such as “mutual support” in rural areas are also expanding. By 2017 China had 155,000 institutions with 7.45 million beds to provide old-age services, including nursing homes, community-based old-age service facilities, and “mutual support” facilities – a stark contrast with just 8,000 nursing homes in 1978. The state has strengthened social assistance and welfare for the elderly, providing subsistence allowances to 17.8 million elderly persons in need and supporting 4.1 million elderly persons in extreme poverty with government funding. By 2017 the allowances for impoverished senior citizens over the specified age had covered all provinces, which had also released preferential policies for the elderly. To enrich the cultural life of the elderly, there are now 49,000 schools for the elderly with more than 7 million students, and 350,000 activity centers.



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