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《改革开放40年中国人权事业的发展进步》白皮书(中英对照全文)IV

发布时间: 2019-01-31 09:40:56   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 改革开放极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,成功地开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,也揭开了中国人权事业发展的新篇章。



 监督权保障体系持续完善。2014年,全国人大修改预算法;2017年,出台《关于建立预算审查前听取人大代表和社会各界意见建议的机制的意见》,推进预算公开和民主监督。2015年,修改立法法,明确规定向审查申请人反馈及社会公开制度,加强公民监督权利。全国人大常委会履行宪法法律监督职责,健全备案审查制度,建立全国统一的备案审查信息平台。十二届全国人大常委会任期内共接受报送备案的规范性文件4778件,对188件行政法规和司法解释逐一进行主动审查,对地方性法规有重点地开展专项审查,认真研究公民、组织提出的1527件审查建议,对审查中发现与法律相抵触或不适当的问题,督促制定机关予以纠正。2012年至2016年,全国人大常委会共开展20次执法检查。2016年至2017年,全国人大常委会检查了食品安全法、安全生产法、环境保护法、道路交通安全法等12部关系人民切身利益的法律的实施情况。人民政协积极探索和完善民主监督机制,就决策执行中的问题提出批评和建议。十二届全国政协视察调研的监督性议题由2015年的12项占11%,增至2017年的20项占28%。实施《深化人民监督员制度改革方案》,进一步加强社会监督。

  Continued efforts to improve the right of supervision. The National People’s Congress revised the Budget Law in 2014, and released Decisions on Building a Mechanism of Soliciting Opinions of Deputies to People’s Congresses and the Public Before Budget Review in 2017 to make budgets transparent and place them under democratic supervision. In 2015, the Legislation Law was amended, specifying that it is necessary to respond to the requirement for review and disclose information to increase the citizens’ right to supervise.

  The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress should exercise their supervisory duties over the Constitution and the law, and improve the filing and review system by setting up a national unified platform. The Standing Committee of the 12th National People’s Congress received 4,778 normative documents for filing, reviewed 188 administrative regulations and judicial interpretations item by item, conducted special reviews of targeted local regulations, studied 1,527 review suggestions raised by the public and other organizations, and urged relevant departments to correct problems when they were found to be in conflict with current laws. From 2012 to 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress carried out 20 examinations of law enforcement. Between 2016 and 2017, it inspected the enforcement of 12 laws concerning the immediate interests of the public such as Food Safety, Workplace Safety, Environmental Protection, and Road Traffic Safety.

  The CPPCC has actively explored and improved the democratic supervision system and offered criticism and suggestions regarding problems arising in implementation. In 2017, the 12th CPPCC National Committee investigated and researched 20 supervisory issues, which accounted for 28 percent of its total investigations and researches. In 2015, the corresponding figures were 12 and 11 percent. The Plan for Deeper Reform of the People’s Supervisor System has been implemented to extend the public’s right of scrutiny.

  宗教信仰自由依法得到保障。中国实行宗教信仰自由政策,坚持从本国国情和宗教实际出发,保障公民宗教信仰自由权利,构建积极健康的宗教关系,维护宗教和睦与社会和谐。中国政府依照宪法和法律,支持各宗教坚持独立自主自办原则,各宗教团体、宗教教职人员和信教公民自主办理宗教事业;对涉及国家利益和社会公共利益的宗教事务进行管理,但不干涉宗教内部事务。中共十八大以来,中国全面推进依法治国,把宗教工作纳入国家治理体系,宗教工作法治化水平不断提高。国家对待各宗教一律平等,一视同仁,不以行政力量发展或禁止某个宗教,任何宗教都不能超越其他宗教在法律上享有特殊地位。中国有佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教和基督教等宗教信教公民近2亿,宗教教职人员38万余人,依法登记的宗教活动场所14.4万处,宗教院校共91所。加大宗教教职人员社会保障力度,截至2017年,宗教教职人员医疗保险参保率达96.5%,养老保险参保率达89.6%,符合条件的全部纳入低保,基本实现了社保体系全覆盖。

  Legal guarantee for freedom of religious belief. China follows policies on freedom of religious belief. Based on its national and religious conditions, China protects citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, builds active and healthy religious relationships, and maintains religious and social harmony. The Chinese government, in accordance with the Constitution and the law, supports all religions in upholding the principle of independence and self-management; religious groups, clerical personnel and believers manage their own religious affairs. The state manages religious affairs involving national and public interests, but does not interfere in the internal affairs of religions. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has comprehensively promoted the rule of law and included religious work in the national governance system to improve its law-based management. The state treats all religions fairly and equally, and does not exercise administrative power to encourage or ban any religion. No religion is given preferential treatment over other religions to enjoy special legal privileges. The major religions practiced in China are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, and Catholic and Protestant Christianity, involving a total of nearly 200 million believers and more than 380,000 clerical personnel. At present, there are about 144,000 places of worship registered for religious activities and 91 religious schools in China. Social security for religious clerical personnel has been enhanced. By the end of 2017, 96.5 percent of clerical personnel had been covered by medical insurance, and 89.6 percent by old-age insurance, and all eligible personnel had been covered by subsistence allowance welfare – almost all clerical personnel had been covered by the social security system in China.



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