The people’s courts and people’s procuratorates are both judi-cial organs of the state set up in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The former exercise judicial power independently, while the latter exercise procuratorial power independently, neither being subject to interference by administra-tive organs, public organizations or individuals. As judicial organs of the state, the people’s courts try in accordance with the law all criminal cases, including cases of embezzlement, bribery and dere-liction of duty considered to involve corruption, make timely and fair court decisions on cases of embezzlement, bribery and derelic-tion of duty that the procuratorial organs initiate public prosecution, and punish crimes of corruption in accordance with the law. As state organs for legal supervision, the people’s procuratorates pursue liabilities of criminal acts, investigate state functionaries suspected of embezzlement and bribery, dereliction of duty, en-croachment of right and other duty-related crimes, prevent duty-related crimes, and submit public prosecutions to people’s courts on behalf of the state in accordance with the law. The Su-preme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate also direct the trial and procuratorial work of corruption cases by means of judicial interpretations. The people’s procuratorates and the people’s courts offer timely procuratorial and judicial suggestions respectively to departments and organs concerned on major issues relating to duty-related crimes arising in the course of investigation and trial of cases.
Supervisory organs of the government are set up in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China to exercise the power of supervision. They supervise over law enforcement by and integrity and efficiency of state administrative organs, their staff members and other personnel appointed by these organs, or-ganizations empowered by laws or regulations to administer public affairs and their personnel engaged in public service, and organiza-tions entrusted by state administrative organs in accordance with the law to administer public affairs and their personnel.
Auditing organs are supervisory organs through auditing set up in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. They supervise through auditing in accordance with the law the revenues and expenditures of all departments under the State Council and of local governments at all levels, and those of the state financial and monetary organizations and of state-owned en-terprises and public institutions. China has also put into place a system of economic accountability auditing to supervise major leaders of state organs and other organs to be audited in accordance with the law.
The National Bureau of Corruption Prevention of China is an organ that the Chinese government has specially set up to take overall responsibility for the work of corruption prevention. Its major responsibilities are to organize and coordinate the national work of corruption prevention, make overall plans in this regard, formulate relevant policies, examine and direct the work, coordi-nate and direct the work of corruption prevention in enterprises, public institutions, social groups, intermediate agencies and other social organizations, and take charge of international cooperation and technical assistance in this regard.