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《关于中美经贸摩擦的事实与中方立场》白皮书 (中英对照全文)VI

发布时间: 2018-10-12 09:42:06   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,美国是世界上最大的发达国家,中美经贸关系既对两国意义重大,也对全球经济稳定和发展有着举足...



  (四)使用大量非关税壁垒

  世界贸易组织并不完全禁止对国内产业实行保护,但原则是削减非关税壁垒、提升政策措施透明度,使其对贸易的扭曲减少到最低限度。美国采用大量更具隐蔽性、歧视性和针对性的非关税壁垒,对国内特定市场施以严格保护,明显扭曲了贸易秩序和市场环境。

4. Use of large-scale non-tariff barriers 

While the WTO does not completely prohibit countries from protecting their domestic industries, certain principles must be followed, including lower non-tariff barriers, greater transparency of policies and measures, and a minimal level of trade distortion. The US has put in place a large number of discriminatory non-tariff barriers that are more targeted yet disguised, in an effort to keep specific segments of the domestic market under strict protection. This approach constitutes a notable distortion of the trade order and market environment. 

  根据世界贸易组织统计,美国当前已通报的卫生和植物检疫以及技术性贸易壁垒措施分别有3004项和1574项,占全球的比重分别高达18%和6.6%(图9)。联合国贸发组织2018年6月29日的报告《对贸易监管数据的分析揭露新的重大发现》中提到,要把一棵树进口到美国,需满足54项卫生和植物检疫措施相关要求。这些措施严重影响了货物通关效率,增加了贸易成本。

  图表:图9:美国的非关税壁垒措施及占全球的比重 新华社发

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According to the WTO, the US has reported 3,004 sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and 1,574 technical barriers to trade (TBT) measures, accounting for 18 percent and 6.6 percent of the world’s total (Chart 9). As reported in the UNCTAD’s “Analysis of Trade Regulations Data Flags Important New Findings” on June 29, 2018,  a tree has to meet 54 SPS requirements before it can be imported into the US. These technical barriers have significantly lowered customs clearance efficiency and raised trade costs. 

  (五)滥用贸易救济措施

  根据世界贸易组织规定,成员方在进口产品存在倾销、补贴或进口过快增长对国内产业造成损害的情况下,可以使用贸易救济措施,但有严格限定条件。美国大量使用贸易救济措施对本国产业实施保护,其中相当大一部分针对中国。

  美国贸易保护主义措施增多,在全球占比不断提高。全球贸易预警(Global Trade Alert)统计数据显示,2017年,全球共有837项新的保护主义干预措施,其中美国出台143项措施,占全球总数的17.1%。2018年1-7月底,美国出台的保护主义措施占全球比重达到33%(图10)。

  图表:图10:美国每年新增贸易保护主义措施及占全球比重 新华社发

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5. The abuse of trade remedy measures

While the WTO allows the use of trade remedy measures when a member economy finds damage caused to its domestic industries by dumping, subsidy or excessive growth in imports, strict limits and conditions do apply. However, the US has resorted to a huge number of trade remedy measures to protect its domestic industries. Many of these measures target China. 

The US is adopting a growing number of trade protectionist measures, whose share of the world’s total is also rising. According to Global Trade Alert, among the 837 new protectionist measures adopted in 2017 worldwide, 143 (or 17.1 percent) were from the US. From January to the end of July in 2018, the US accounted for 33 percent of all protectionist measures in the world (Chart 10). 

Chart 10: Additional Trade Protectionist Measures of the US and Their Global Share



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