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《中国特色社会主义法律体系》(中英对照)IV

发布时间: 2018-04-11 09:49:36   作者:译聚网   来源: 国新网   浏览次数:
摘要: 《中国特色社会主义法律体系》(中英对照),粘贴出来供大家参考。




    为推进改革开放,扩大国际经济合作和技术交流,中国制定了中外合资经营企业法、外资企业法、中外合作经营企业法,对外国投资者在中国的投资条件、程序、经营、监督、管理和合法权益的保障等作出规定,确定了外国投资者在中国投资应当尊重中国国家主权的原则,以及中国保护投资者合法权益、平等互利、给予优惠、遵循国际通行规则等原则,为外国投资者在中国进行投资创造了良好的环境。为更好地体现平等互利和遵循国际通行规则,中国多次对这三部法律进行修改完善,充分保障了外国投资者在中国投资、开展经贸活动的合法权益。截至2010年底,中国共批准设立外商投资企业710747家,实际使用外资金额11078.58亿美元,充分表明中国保护外国投资者的法律制度日益完善。


    行政法。行政法是关于行政权的授予、行政权的行使以及对行政权的监督的法律规范,调整的是行政机关与行政管理相对人之间因行政管理活动发生的关系,遵循职权法定、程序法定、公正公开、有效监督等原则,既保障行政机关依法行使职权,又注重保障公民、法人和其他组织的权利。截至2011年8月底,中国已制定行政法方面的法律79部和一大批规范行政权力的行政法规、地方性法规。


    中国十分重视对行政机关行使权力的规范,依法加强对行政权力行使的监督,确保行政机关依法正确行使权力。中国制定了行政处罚法,确立了处罚法定、公正公开、过罚相当、处罚与教育相结合等基本原则,规范了行政处罚的设定权,规定了较为完备的行政处罚决定和执行程序,建立了行政处罚听证制度,行政机关在作出对当事人的生产生活可能产生重大影响的行政处罚决定前,赋予当事人要求听证的权利。制定了行政复议法,规定了行政机关内部自我纠正错误的机制,为公民、法人和其他组织合法权益提供救济。依据这部法律,平均每年通过行政复议处理行政争议8万多件。制定了行政许可法,规定了行政许可的设定、实施机关和实施程序,规范了行政许可制度,并为减少行政许可,明确了可以设定行政许可的事项,同时规定,在公民、法人或者其他组织能够自主决定、市场竞争机制能够有效调节、行业组织和中介机构能够自律管理、行政机关采用事后监督等其他行政管理方式能够解决的情形下,不设行政许可。为了贯彻落实行政许可法,十届全国人大常委会第十一次会议一次通过9个法律修正案,取消11项行政许可;国务院先后撤销了中央一级的许可事项1749项、改变管理方式121项、下放管理层级46项。制定了行政强制法,明确了设定和实施行政强制的原则,规范了行政强制的种类、设定权限、实施主体和实施程序,为保证和监督行政机关依法行政,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,提供了法律依据。


To promote the reform and opening up, and expand international economic cooperation and technical exchanges, China enacted Law on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, Law on Foreign-funded Enterprises and Law on Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures, with provisions on the investment conditions, procedures, operation, supervision, administration, and the protection of legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors in China. The state has established the principle that foreign investors should respect China's sovereignty when investing in China and other principles, including the protection of investors' legitimate rights and interests, equality and mutual benefit, extending of preferential policies and conforming to international prevailing norms, creating a favorable environment for foreign investors in China. To better implement the principles of equality and mutual benefit and conforming to international prevailing norms, China has made several amendments to the above three laws, and fully guarantees the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors in their investment and commercial activities in China. By the end of 2010 China had approved the establishment of 710,747 foreign-funded enterprises with an actual investment of US$1.107858 trillion, which fully demonstrates the constant improvement of China's legal system regarding the protection of foreign investors.

Administrative laws. Administrative laws are the collection of legal norms on the granting, execution and supervision of administrative power. They regulate the relationships between administrative authorities and subjects of administration because of administrative activities, follow the principles of statutory remit, statutory procedure, fairness and openness, and effective supervision, and guarantee the discharge of the functions and powers of administrative organs, as well as the rights of citizens, legal persons and other organizations. By the end of August 2011 China had enacted 79 administrative laws and a large number of administrative and local regulations regulating administrative power.


China attaches great importance to the regulation of the administrative organs' execution of their power, strengthens the supervision of the execution of administrative power in accordance with the law, and ensures the correct execution of administrative power by administrative organs. China has formulated the Law on Administrative Penalties, established the basic principles of penalty by law, fairness and openness, corresponding penalty for offence and combination of penalty and education, standardized the enactment rights of administrative penalties, developed fairly complete procedures of the decision and execution of administrative penalties, and established the hearing system of administrative penalties, by which an administrative organ, before making a decision on administrative penalty that may have a significance influence on the production and life of the party concerned, shall notify the party the right to request a hearing. The state has promulgated the Administrative Reconsideration Law, established the self-correction mechanism within administrative organs, and provided remedies to citizens, legal persons and other organizations for the protection of their legitimate rights and interests. Under this law, about 80,000 cases of administrative dispute are handled each year. The state has enacted the Administrative Licensing Law, which regulates the institution, executive organs and procedures of administrative licensing, standardizes the system of administrative licensing, and, in order to reduce the number of administrative licensing, defines the matters involved in the application for administrative licensing. It also stipulates that administrative licensing will not be used for matters in which citizens, legal persons and other organizations can make decisions themselves, matters which can be effectively regulated by the competitive mechanism of the market, matters which the organizations of trades or intermediary bodies can manage through self-discipline, and matters which administrative departments can solve by other administrative means such as subsequent supervision. In order to thoroughly implement the Administrative Licensing Law, the 11th meeting of the Standing Committee of the 10th NPC passed nine amendments, removing 11 types of administrative licensing. The State Council canceled 1,749 matters of administrative licensing at the central level, changed the administrative method for 121 matters and transferred 46 matters to lower administrative levels. The state has promulgated the Administrative Coercion Law, which clearly defines the principles of the institution and execution of administrative enforcement, standardizes the types, statutory limits, executive bodies and procedures of administrative enforcement, providing a legal basis for the guarantee and supervision of the administrative organs' performance of administrative functions and powers in accordance with the law, and the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.



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