Prison, Penitentiary 和 Gaol （Jail）法律术语分析
以上单词均可用作指关押罪犯设施的含义。其中，gaol (英式英语，美语称为jail)多指地方（县、市等）监狱设施，多关押未决犯或轻罪犯 ，故应译为“看守所”或“地方监狱” prison和penitentiary词义相近，指关押已决犯的联邦或州监狱， 被监禁者所犯罪行一般都较严重 ,也称为penal institution, adult correctional institution。而 penitentiary 则尤指关押重罪犯的场所。
[1 ] "Jail (gaol) is usually used to hold persons either convicted of misdemeanors (minor crimes) or persons awaiting trial or as luck-up for intoxicated and disorderly persons." Cf. the Publisher's Editorial Staff, Black's Law Dictionary with Pronunciations, abridged 6th edition，at p. 580，West Publishing Co. (1991). “an institution usually run by a county or municipality, for locking up offenders serving short sentences and accused people awaiting trial. B Cf. James E. Clapp，Random House Websters Dictionary of the Law, at p. 250, Random House, New York (2000). Ba place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody； specific： such a place under the jurisdiction of a local government (as a county) for the confinement of persons awaiting trial or those convicted of minor crimes. " Cf. Linda Picard Wood, J. D.，Merriam Webster's Dictionary of Law, at p. 265 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated (1996).
 “A state or federal facility in which people convicted of serious crimes and given long sentences are incarcerated. ”Cf. James E. Clapp, Random House Webster's Dictionary of the Law, at p. 340，Random House, New York (2000). “an institution usu. under state control for confinement of persons serving sentences for serious crimes. ” Cf. Linda Picard Wood, J. D. , Meniam Webster's Dictionary of Law，at p. 382，Merriam-Webster，In-corporated (1996). “ A state or federal facility of confinement for convicted criminals， esp. felons. " Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black's Law Dictionary, 7th edition, at p. 1213, West Croup (1999).
 “A state or federal prisons for the punishment and reformation of convicted felons. ”Cf. Linda Picard Wood，J. D.，Merriam Websters Dictionary of Law，at p. 358, Merriam-Webster ,Incorporated (1996 ).