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Adversary system法律术语分析及英语解释

发布时间: 2017-12-19 09:24:00   作者:etogether.net   来源: 网络   浏览次数:
摘要: 粘贴出来Inquisitorial system,Accusatorial procedure system 和 Adversary system法律术语分析及英语解释以供大家参考。


以上三个术语均用于指不同的诉讼形式。其中,inquisitorial system为“纠问制”,指大陆法国家所实行的一种审判制度,奉行职权主义,即由法官代表国家利益进行审判,其可讯问当事人,可依职权自己调查事实并直接提取证据[1]。accusatorial procedure system 为“控诉式诉讼制”,与“纠问式诉讼”相对,主要特征为控诉和审判职能分离,司法机关不主动追究犯罪,双方当事人在诉讼中居主导地位,审判机关居消极仲裁的地位, 双方当事人享有平等的诉讼地位,各自对诉讼主张分担举证责任,审判实行公开原则、言辞辩论原则和陪审原则,该种诉讼形式多流行于罗马共和时期和英国的封建时代,与adversary system相同,差异只在于前者只用于刑事案件,而后者则可用于刑事及民事诉讼[2]。adversary system为“对抗制”,是指目前英美法系国家实行的一种审判制度,奉行当事人主义,即当事人在诉讼中居主导地位,允许纠纷中对立各方,一般由律师代理, 向陪审团提出证据和主张,多数情况下,法官只主持诉讼活动而非进行实际的事实调查[3]。

 

[1]“Proceedings in which the judge, not the parties,adduces evidence in contrast to the adversarial system. ”Cf. Daphne Dukelow,The Dictionary of Canadian Law,at p. 519, Thomson Professional Publishing Canada (1991 ).

[2]“The Anglo-American system of criminal prosecution, in which the government, having accused the defendant, must prove its allegations by the adversary process, with the judge acting only as a neutral referee. Same as adversary system, except that the latter term applies to both civil and criminal cases. ”Cf. James E. Clapp,Random House Webster's Dictionary of the Law, at p. 10, Random House (2000).

[3]“The jurisprudential network of laws, rules and procedures characterized by opposing parties who contend against each other for a result favorable to themselves. In such system, the judges acts as an independent magistrate rather than prosecutor ; distinguished from inquisitorial system. ”Cf. The Publisher's Editorial Staff, Black's Law Dictionary, abridged 6th edition, at p. 34, West Publishing Co. (1991).


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