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Levy,Seizure 和 Distress法律术语分析及英语解释

发布时间: 2017-10-28 08:56:13   作者:etogether.net   来源: 网络   浏览次数:
摘要: 粘贴出来Detention,Attachment,Garnishment,Capture,Levy,Seizure 和 Distress法律术语分析及英语解释以供大家参考。




以上这些单词均有扣押财产的含义。其中,detention多指非法扣押他人财产,与detainer同义,常为一种违法(wrongful) 行为[1]。attachment是指得到法院的命令且由法庭官员予以执行的对债务人财产的扣押,如防止被告转移财产或迫使其到庭解决债务纠纷等[2]。garnishment 是指对第三人保管的债务财产之扣押,包括对债务人的工资的扣押,目的是用其偿还债务[3]。 capture为“捕获”,多用于国际法中,指交战国扣押敌国或载有应予没收货物的中立国船舶的权利,以及交战国对陆地上非私人财产(即战利品)的扣押;在民法中,其指捕获不属于他人的鱼类、飞禽和野兽从而获得该财产的一种方式 [4]。levy是指执行判决扣押债务人之动产或不动产,同时拍卖以偿还债务 (也称为levy of execution) [5]。seizure则是指因违法或执行判决等扣押财产的行为[6];其与capture的区别在于capture是由军队实施的,而seizure则是由文职政权实施的[7]。distress是指扣押债务人之动产(goods)以还债,尤指地主(房东)扣押财产以 求佃户(房客)偿还租金[8]。
[1] "Wrongfully holding goods which belong to someone else. ”Cf. P. H. Collin,
Dictionary of Law, at p. 168, Peter Collin Publishing (1993).
[2]“The seizing or freezing of property by court order in order to subject the property to the jurisdiction of the court, either so that a dispute as to ownership of it can be resolved or so that it will be available to satisfy a judgment against the owner. ”Cf. James E. Clapp, Random House Webster's Dictionary of the Law,at p. 41,Random House (2000).
[3] "A remedial device used by a creditor to have property of the debtor or money owed to the debtor that is in the possession of a third party attached to pay the debt to the creditor. ”Cf. Linda Picard Wood, J. D. , Merriam Webster's Dictionary of Law,at p. 137 , Merriam-Webster, Incorporated (1996).
[4]“In international law,the taking or wresting of property from one of two belligerents by the other. Also a taking of property by a belligerent from an offending neutral. ” Cf. T^e Publisher’s Editorial Staff, Black's Law Dictionary, abridged 6th edition, at p. 145,West Publishing Co. (1991).
[5]“ Seizure of property in accordance with legal authority;esp. attachment or seizure of property of a judgment debtor in order to satisfy a judgment. w Cf. C. R. B. Dunlop, Creditor-Debtor Law in Canada, at p. 424, Toronto, Carswell (1981).
[6] "A species of execution in which a sheriff executes a writ of fi. fa. by taken possession of the chattels of the debtor. " Cf. Daphne A. Dukelow, The Dictionary of Canadian Law, at p. 971, Thomson Professional Publishing Canada (1991).
[7] "Capture, in technical language, is a taking by military power;a seizure is a taking by civil authority. ”Cf. The Publisher's Editorial Staff, Black's Law Dictionary, abridged 6th edition,at p. 145 , West Publishing Co. (1991).
[8]“The seizure of another’s property to secure the performance of a duty, such as the payment of overdue rent. ” Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th edition, at p. 487,West Group (1999).


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