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Burden of proof, Burden of production 和 Burden of persuasion法律术语分析

发布时间: 2017-09-29 15:33:58   作者:etogether.net   来源: 网络   浏览次数:
摘要: 粘贴出来Burden of proof, Burden of production 和 Burden of persuasion法律术语分析及英语解释以供大家参考。


以上术语均和当事人对证据的责任相关,以往不少人将它们都笼统译为“举证责任”,其实那应算作一种错误,在英美法中,它们原本是有一定差异的。事实上,burden of proof应为“证明责任”(其也称为onus probandi),其包含有burden of production和burden of persuasion两术语的含义,即既“举证”,又“说服”。此便是当事人必须承担的用证据证明指控或断言的真实性的责任;广义上讲,也等同burden of persuasion[1]。而burden of production 则是“证明责任”的一部分,为“举证责任”, 指当事人必须就诉争问题提供充足证据以供事实裁定人作出正确裁决[2],其也称为 burden of going forward with evidence, burden of producing evidence, production burden 或 degree of proof。而 burden of persuasion也是“证明责任”的一部分,其为“说服责任”,指当事人应说服事实裁定人相信自己所举事实的责任[3],也称为 persuasion burden,risk of non-persuasion,risk of jury doubt ;广义上讲,也可等于burden of proof。
 
[1]“A party's duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge. The burden of proof includes both the burden of persuasion and the burden of production. ”Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black's Law Dictionary,7th edition, at p. 190,West Group (1999).
[2]“The requirement that a party to a case introduce evidence to support a claim or defense in order to have that issue considered by the judge or jury. ”Cf. James E. Clapp, Random House Webster's Dictionary of the Law, at p. 64, Random House, New York(2000).
[3]“A party's duty to convince the fact-finder to view the facts in a way that favors that party. In civil cases,the plaintiff's burden is usu. by a preponderance of the evidence, while in criminal cases the prosecution's burden is beyond a reasonable doubt. ”Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black's Law Dictionary, 7th edition, at p. 190,West Group (1999).



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